Chapter 33UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)
33.1 The genesis of UNDP dates back to 1949 when the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance (EPTA) was established as a channel for the transfer of technical knowledge and skills to the newly emerging countries. Subsequently in 1958, the General Assembly instituted the Special Fund (SF) which took up larger and more complex projects for transfer of technology. In 1963, it was decided to merge EPTA and SF and subsequently UNDP came into being on 1st January, 1966. UNDP is presently the largest multilateral organisation providing technical assistance on grant basis .UNDP is the largest source of development cooperation in the UN System. It has 136 offices worldwide and a Resident Representative, who is also designated by UN Secretary General as the United Nations Resident Coordinator, heads each office. The policy making body for UNDP is 36-member UNDP Executive Board that came into being in 1994.
33..2 UNDP derives the funds from voluntary contributions from various donor countries. India contributes approximately US $4.38 million per year to UNDP since 1993. India is the largest single contributor to UNDP core resources from amongst the developing countries. India contributed US $ 4.45 million in 1997, US $ 4.5 million in 1998 and 1999. In addition to cash contribution, India has also been offering training facilities and services of experts for UNDP assisted projects.
33.3 Earlier,UNDP assistance was planned on the basis of approved Indicative Planning Figure (IPF). UNDP-Indias first Country programme covered the period from 1st April 1972 to 31st March 1979. The Second Country programme including its extension covered the period from 1st April 1979 to 31st March 1985. The third Country Programme was from 1st April 1985 to 31st March 1990. The fourth Country programme which was scheduled to cover the period from 1st April 1990 to 31st March 1995 was later extended upto 31st March 1997. From April 1997 to December 2001 we are covering the First Country Cooperation Framework (CCF-I).
33.4 For the purpose of allocating precise and exact quantum of assistance to the recipient countries, UNDP themselves use to follow a global IPF cycle. An IPF is the magnitude of resources expected to be made available from UNDP to a given country during a prescribed period of five calendar years designated as the IPF Cycle. Indias IPF for the various cycles had been as under:-
1st cycle (1972-76) $ 50.0 Million
2nd cycle (1977-81) $ 97.0 Million
3rd cycle (1982-86) $ 138.6 Million
4th cycle (1987-91) $ 156.1 Million
5th cycle (1992-96) $ 109.3 Million
33.5 The UNDP's approach has shifted and as per UN mandate, UNDP assistance should be based on the sustainable human development, which encompasses a variety of dimensions including poverty alleviation, good governance, building equity, employment, empowerment and environmental regeneration. India has traditionally been utilizing UNDP assistance to obtain latest technology in the fields identified as priority sectors like Agriculture, Industry, Natural Resources, Science and Technology, Rural Development etc. The components of UNDP technical assistance are supply of equipment, services of experts as also training opportunities both in India and abroad.
33.6 Two special features of UNDP assistance programme are national execution and the programme approach. Under national execution, national institutions are encouraged to assume full responsibility for managing the project with focussed support from the specialized UN agencies. The programme approach envisages close inter-linking of UNDP assisted projects/programmes with national programmes so as to maximize impact and sustainability. At present, there are 43 operational projects with a budget of US$22 million for 1999. Around 72% of this is under National Execution followed by UNDP which is executing 13% of the total programmes and UNDDSMS which is executing around 6% of the programme. National Execution appears to have come of age in India and the NEX implementation rates has stabilized at around the same level as those for the agencies(viz., 60%).
33.7 UNDP has now changed its approach from project to programme. Instead of several scattered projects across the country UNDP will now concentrate on few programmes. According to the new allocation, 60% of the core resources will be allocated to the countries at the beginning of the programme cycle. Further allocation, which may vary from 0% to 100% of the initial allocation, may be provided after monitoring the progress and quality of implementation of the programmes.
33.8 The Government of India, in close cooperation with UNDP Country office, has formulated the CCF. UNDP Executive Board has approved CCF-I document in its second Regular Session in March 1997. The total resources likely to be available for CCF-I Programme Cycle (1997-2001) will be in order of US$ 135.5 million.
33.9 CCF-I focuses on growth with equity with poverty alleviation and human resource development as central concerns. The CCF-I goals are to be achieved through the following twelve mutually reinforcing programmes in the thematic areas of employment and sustainable livelihood, access to basic services, management of development and sustainable development with a focus on technology up- gradation and capacity building as a means to achieving the objectives.
33.10 The twelve programmes are:-
Food & Nutrition Security Programme
US$ 13.5 million
Primary Education Support Programme
US$ 9 million
Health Support Programme
US$ 4 million
Economic Reforms Support Programme
US$ 1.84 million
Capacity Building Programme
US$ 12 million
Community-Based Pro-poor Initiatives
US$ 13 million
US$ 10.5 million
US$ 4.2 million
US$ 9 million
Leather Sector Programme
US$ 7 million
Fibres & Handicrafts Sector Programme
US$ 7 million
Village & Small Industries Programme
US$ 5.5 million
(A) UNITED NATIONS CHILDRENS FUND (UNICEF)
Since 1949, the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) has supported programmes in India which assist improvement of the status of women and children. UNICEFs programme cycle for India covered the years 1985-90 and included a total of $ 175 million in general resource assistance and $ 163 million in special resource assistance. During 1988-89 UNICEF provided assistance totalling approximately $ 60 million, as compared to approximately $ 43 million in the previous financial year.
The major themes of UNICEFs cooperation with the Government of India are health, education, drinking water and nutrition. The specific projects which receive greatest attention are integrated child development services, immunization, oral rehydration therapy and drinking water.
UNICEF assistance is provided both in the form of cash support to project activities and the provision of supplies and equipment. During 1988-89, a total of approximately $ 19.2 million worth of supplies were procured locally in India of which approximately $ 3.6 million were for export to other countries.
The assistance provided by UNICEF in 1988 as well as during the MPO period 1985-89 was as under:-
(Figures in 000 US $)
1988 Actual Expenditure
Total Expenditure 1985-89 as of 31st July 1989
I. GENERAL RESOURCES Integrated Child Development Services
Urban Basic Services
Social Inputs in Area Development
Transport & EGPT Management Services
Universal Immunization Programme
Water & Environmental Sanitation
Prevention of Childhood Disability
Support to Destitute Children
II. SUPPLEMENTARY FUNDS Womens Development
Universal Immunization Programme
Water & Environmental Sanitation
(B) WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME
Cooperation between India and World Food Programme began in 1963, with the signing of the first project agreement. During the last 34 years, WFP has allocated over 1117 million U.S.dollars worth of food aid for 70 development projects (including project expansions) and 13 emergency operations in India.
WFP is currently supporting three programmes in India in various states. One programme for "vulnerable women and children" covers the state of Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in the form of support to the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme of the government. The second programme for "food security and development support to tribal and scheduled caste people" covers the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The third programme for "rural development through irrigation and settlement" covers the states of Karnataka and Rajasthan.
WFP have provided assistance of about 27 million US dollars during 1998. While ICDS received 18 million US dollars, Food security and development support to tribal and scheduled caste people have received 8.7 million US dollars respectively.
Under the WFP India country programme (1 April 1997 to 31 March 2002), WFP will provide upto 426,000 metric tons and other assistance valued at US dollars 153,200,500, resources being available.
WFP assistance is aimed at raising the nutrition level, food security and quality of life of the poorest of the poor in rural areas, particularly the nutritionally vulnerable women and children.
WFP provides family food rations at subsidised rates to labourers who work on government-run forestry and irrigation projects in the states mentioned above. The funds raised through the subsidised sale of rations are invested in socio-economic infrastructure, income-generating activities and employment-generating schemes designed to benefit the poorest sections of the people in the project areas. More than 1,100 million rupees are expected to be generated in the forestry and irrigation projects.
In a settlement project in Rajasthan, WFP provides free family rations and interest-free loans to previously landless or near landless settlers in the command area of the Indira Gandhi Canal to help them through the initial period of settlement and land preparation.
In a supplementary nutrition project WFP supplies supplementary food to an estimated 1.68 million pre-school children, pregnant women and nursing mothers from low-income families. This is in the form of a micro-nutrient enriched blended food, both imported(corn soya blend) and produced in India ("Indiamix").
(C) WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
WHO has had a significant input in the implementation of the National Health Programme, which strives to sustain the gains achieved in the past for improving the health care delivery system. In line with the Declaration on Health Development in the South-East Asia Region, also endorsed by India, efforts are being made to develop national health plans and programmes to improve the health management information system and to integrate the policy guidance laid down in the Declaration into the national health policy and plan.
India played host to the Sixteenth Meeting of the Health Ministers of the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region in September 1998, to achieve common goals for health development in the Region. Steps have been taken to include Women Health and Development (WHD) issues in the national development plans and the national health programme, focusing on advocacy, policy guidance, gender mainstreaming and integration of operational aspects of WHD in relevant programme areas. WHO's catalytic assistance has been utilized in strengthening the State Governments' capabilities in strategic planning, management and improving overall health care delivery system to reach all, including the poor and other vulnerable groups.
A number of officials from various departments/ministries were trained in different health-related areas through WHO fellowship and study tours both within the Region and in Europe and America. WHO has supported integration of quality assurance activities in the functioning of laboratories by training laboratory personnel.
WHO has been promoting the rational use of drugs and has supported the Delhi Government in establishing an Essential Drugs list and to develop a Formulary. Similar activities have now been taken up by other States in India. Given the importance of traditional medicine, including homeopathy, siddha, yoga, unani and ayurveda system in the country, WHO has supported the Department of Indigenous Medicine and Homeopathy in developing pharmacopea and standardization of drugs. It also plans to support the training of trainers and reorientation of health workers to the new Reproductive and Child Health programme of the Government of India.
The concern of the prevailing ill-health among women is being addressed through several programmes such as nutrition, reproductive health, maternal and child health and women health and development, particularly through investment in women's health as advocated by the Declaration for Health Development.
The Government of India is committed in its determination to accelerate the development of health services through its declared health policies and strategies within which the major shift in the emphasis is from curative to preventive and promotive aspects of health delivery services, from urban to rural populations, and from the affluent to the underprivileged and underserved sections of the society. Inter alia, it also emphasizes a shift towards a more multisectoral approach, seeking to address health concerns within the overall social and economic development, in partnership with or without a greater involvement of private sector.
In line with the WHO's priority areas for support, adequate attention is being given to prevention and control as also eradication of specific communicable diseases. Notable among these are the Government's efforts for eradication of guineaworm, eradication of poliomyelitis, elimination of neonatal tetanus and control of measles and elimination of leprosy by the year 2000. An International Certification Team will be visiting India during October-November 1999 for certifying the country as 'free from dracunculiasis'. National capability to manage AIDS and STD Programmes in India has been one of the major outcomes of collaborative programmes. Similarly, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control programme (RNTCP) has been receiving continued support and the implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) strategy is being supported for the demonstration areas. The DOTS programme has been expanded to cover 100 Districts at present. Twenty-three medical consultants have already been assigned to different States and districts to implement RNTCP.
Tobacco Free Initiative, which is one of the specific projects for priority attention as advocated by the Headquarters, has been given due emphasis in the national health programme. Concerted efforts are being made at all levels to create awareness about the ill-health aspects of tobacco smoking, tobacco-chewing and other forms of tobacco use. A special cell is being created under the auspices of the Ministry of Health &Family Welfare to deal with this specific programme area.
Roll Back Malaria initiative has given a renewed thrust to the country's anti-malaria programme. The strategy of resorting to border meetings to tackle the malaria menace in the border districts has proved effective.
Through a series of training programmes, skills of health personnel at various levels have been upgraded in effectively dealing with the prevention and control of non communicable diseases, including cancer and palliative care. Capabilities of selected institutions have been strengthened in this regard. Adequate emphasis is given to health promotion activities, particularly on children, and those younger ones exposed to hazarduous occupations in factories and other workplaces.
Greater involvement of private sectors is being encouraged. Various high levels forums like the Health Ministers' Meeting as also that of the Health Secretaries continues to provide useful directions towards implementing strategies which contribute to strengthen the health and health related activities with inter and multisectoral approach.
The national capacity to manage the communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS has considerably increased as a result of continuous technical and financial support provided by WHO. The national disease surveillance system has also received adequate attention. WHO has been assigned the task of preparing a concrete plan for communicable diseases surveillance along with the National Institute of Communicable Disease which would then be submitted to the World Bank for funding.
The level of surveillance achieved in polio, given the short time, has been unparallelled even in the Americas at the height of their polio eradication programme. WHO has been instrumental in providing the Ministry of Health and the donor consortium with technical guidance for conducting of National Immunization Days for eradication of polio. The National Polio Surveillance Project, with the help of Synchronized National Immunization Days, has managed to cover the entire targeted population groups with polio immunization , with a view to achieving its eradication as planned. Through the provision of a large number of fellowships availed of by doctors, nurses and health managers at various levels, the human resources and creative potential have been enhanced. Institutions and laboratories have been strengthened through the provision of essential supplies and equipments. While capacity of selected institutions have significantly enhanced, training of nationals through various workshops and seminars have helped upgrade the skills and medical and para-medical staff.
WHO has been able to mobilize considerable resources in support of health development activities in India. The quantum of funds thus generated amounted to US$ 25.2 million during 1998-1999. Most of these funds were utilized for programmes such as polio eradication, leprosy elimination, control of STD/AIDS and control of tuberculosis. During the year 2000 also, WHO is committed to generate extrabudgetary programmes in India.
During the biennium 2000-2001, WHO is expected to provide financial assistance to the tune of US$ 13 million under the regular budget towards implementation of the WHO/Government of India collaborative programme in different health-related and disease prevention areas.